Deploying and Interacting with a Voting contract

The Vote contract in Starknet begins by registering voters through the contract's constructor. Three voters are initialized at this stage, and their addresses are passed to an internal function _register_voters. This function adds the voters to the contract's state, marking them as registered and eligible to vote.

Within the contract, the constants YES and NO are defined to represent the voting options (1 and 0, respectively). These constants facilitate the voting process by standardizing the input values.

Once registered, a voter is able to cast a vote using the vote function, selecting either the 1 (YES) or 0 (NO) as their vote. When voting, the state of the contract is updated, recording the vote and marking the voter as having voted. This ensures that the voter is not able to cast a vote again within the same proposal. The casting of a vote triggers the VoteCast event, logging the action.

The contract also monitors unauthorized voting attempts. If an unauthorized action is detected, such as a non-registered user attempting to vote or a user trying to vote again, the UnauthorizedAttempt event is emitted.

Together, these functions, states, constants, and events create a structured voting system, managing the lifecycle of a vote from registration to casting, event logging, and result retrieval within the Starknet environment. Constants like YES and NO help streamline the voting process, while events play a vital role in ensuring transparency and traceability.

/// @dev Core Library Imports for the Traits outside the Starknet Contract
use starknet::ContractAddress;

/// @dev Trait defining the functions that can be implemented or called by the Starknet Contract
#[starknet::interface]
trait VoteTrait<T> {
    /// @dev Function that returns the current vote status
    fn get_vote_status(self: @T) -> (u8, u8, u8, u8);
    /// @dev Function that checks if the user at the specified address is allowed to vote
    fn voter_can_vote(self: @T, user_address: ContractAddress) -> bool;
    /// @dev Function that checks if the specified address is registered as a voter
    fn is_voter_registered(self: @T, address: ContractAddress) -> bool;
    /// @dev Function that allows a user to vote
    fn vote(ref self: T, vote: u8);
}

/// @dev Starknet Contract allowing three registered voters to vote on a proposal
#[starknet::contract]
mod Vote {
    use starknet::ContractAddress;
    use starknet::get_caller_address;

    const YES: u8 = 1_u8;
    const NO: u8 = 0_u8;

    /// @dev Structure that stores vote counts and voter states
    #[storage]
    struct Storage {
        yes_votes: u8,
        no_votes: u8,
        can_vote: LegacyMap::<ContractAddress, bool>,
        registered_voter: LegacyMap::<ContractAddress, bool>,
    }

    /// @dev Contract constructor initializing the contract with a list of registered voters and 0 vote count
    #[constructor]
    fn constructor(
        ref self: ContractState,
        voter_1: ContractAddress,
        voter_2: ContractAddress,
        voter_3: ContractAddress
    ) {
        // Register all voters by calling the _register_voters function
        self._register_voters(voter_1, voter_2, voter_3);

        // Initialize the vote count to 0
        self.yes_votes.write(0_u8);
        self.no_votes.write(0_u8);
    }

    /// @dev Event that gets emitted when a vote is cast
    #[event]
    #[derive(Drop, starknet::Event)]
    enum Event {
        VoteCast: VoteCast,
        UnauthorizedAttempt: UnauthorizedAttempt,
    }

    /// @dev Represents a vote that was cast
    #[derive(Drop, starknet::Event)]
    struct VoteCast {
        voter: ContractAddress,
        vote: u8,
    }

    /// @dev Represents an unauthorized attempt to vote
    #[derive(Drop, starknet::Event)]
    struct UnauthorizedAttempt {
        unauthorized_address: ContractAddress,
    }

    /// @dev Implementation of VoteTrait for ContractState
    #[abi(embed_v0)]
    impl VoteImpl of super::VoteTrait<ContractState> {
        /// @dev Returns the voting results
        fn get_vote_status(self: @ContractState) -> (u8, u8, u8, u8) {
            let (n_yes, n_no) = self._get_voting_result();
            let (yes_percentage, no_percentage) = self._get_voting_result_in_percentage();
            (n_yes, n_no, yes_percentage, no_percentage)
        }

        /// @dev Check whether a voter is allowed to vote
        fn voter_can_vote(self: @ContractState, user_address: ContractAddress) -> bool {
            self.can_vote.read(user_address)
        }

        /// @dev Check whether an address is registered as a voter
        fn is_voter_registered(self: @ContractState, address: ContractAddress) -> bool {
            self.registered_voter.read(address)
        }

        /// @dev Submit a vote
        fn vote(ref self: ContractState, vote: u8) {
            assert!(vote == NO || vote == YES, "VOTE_0_OR_1");
            let caller: ContractAddress = get_caller_address();
            self._assert_allowed(caller);
            self.can_vote.write(caller, false);

            if (vote == NO) {
                self.no_votes.write(self.no_votes.read() + 1_u8);
            }
            if (vote == YES) {
                self.yes_votes.write(self.yes_votes.read() + 1_u8);
            }

            self.emit(VoteCast { voter: caller, vote: vote, });
        }
    }

    /// @dev Internal Functions implementation for the Vote contract
    #[generate_trait]
    impl InternalFunctions of InternalFunctionsTrait {
        /// @dev Registers the voters and initializes their voting status to true (can vote)
        fn _register_voters(
            ref self: ContractState,
            voter_1: ContractAddress,
            voter_2: ContractAddress,
            voter_3: ContractAddress
        ) {
            self.registered_voter.write(voter_1, true);
            self.can_vote.write(voter_1, true);

            self.registered_voter.write(voter_2, true);
            self.can_vote.write(voter_2, true);

            self.registered_voter.write(voter_3, true);
            self.can_vote.write(voter_3, true);
        }
    }

    /// @dev Asserts implementation for the Vote contract
    #[generate_trait]
    impl AssertsImpl of AssertsTrait {
        // @dev Internal function that checks if an address is allowed to vote
        fn _assert_allowed(ref self: ContractState, address: ContractAddress) {
            let is_voter: bool = self.registered_voter.read((address));
            let can_vote: bool = self.can_vote.read((address));

            if (!can_vote) {
                self.emit(UnauthorizedAttempt { unauthorized_address: address, });
            }

            assert!(is_voter, "USER_NOT_REGISTERED");
            assert!(can_vote, "USER_ALREADY_VOTED");
        }
    }

    /// @dev Implement the VotingResultTrait for the Vote contract
    #[generate_trait]
    impl VoteResultFunctionsImpl of VoteResultFunctionsTrait {
        // @dev Internal function to get the voting results (yes and no vote counts)
        fn _get_voting_result(self: @ContractState) -> (u8, u8) {
            let n_yes: u8 = self.yes_votes.read();
            let n_no: u8 = self.no_votes.read();

            (n_yes, n_no)
        }

        // @dev Internal function to calculate the voting results in percentage
        fn _get_voting_result_in_percentage(self: @ContractState) -> (u8, u8) {
            let n_yes: u8 = self.yes_votes.read();
            let n_no: u8 = self.no_votes.read();

            let total_votes: u8 = n_yes + n_no;

            if (total_votes == 0_u8) {
                return (0, 0);
            }
            let yes_percentage: u8 = (n_yes * 100_u8) / (total_votes);
            let no_percentage: u8 = (n_no * 100_u8) / (total_votes);

            (yes_percentage, no_percentage)
        }
    }
}

Voting smart contract

Deploying, calling and invoking the Voting Contract

Part of the Starknet experience is deploying and interacting with smart contracts.

Once the contract is deployed, we can interact with it by calling and invoking its functions:

  • Calling contracts: Interacting with external functions that only read from the state. These functions do not alter the state of the network, so they don't require fees or signing.
  • Invoking contracts: Interacting with external functions that can write to the state. These functions do alter the state of the network and require fees and signing.

We will setup a local development node using katana to deploy the voting contract. Then, we'll interact with the contract by calling and invoking its functions. You can also use the Goerli Testnet instead of katana. However, we recommend using katana for local development and testing. You can find the complete tutorial for katana in the Katana: A Local Node chapter of the Starknet Book.

The katana local Starknet node

katana is designed to support local development by the Dojo team. It will allow you to do everything you need to do with Starknet, but locally. It is a great tool for development and testing.

To install katana from the source code, please refer to the Basic Installation chapter of the Starknet Book.

Note: Please verify that the version of katana match the specified version provided below.

$ katana --version
katana 0.4.4

To upgrade katana, refer to the Basic Installation chapter of the Starknet Book.

Once you have katana installed, you can start the local Starknet node with:

katana --accounts 3 --seed 0 --gas-price 250

This command will start a local Starknet node with 3 deployed accounts. We will use these accounts to deploy and interact with the voting contract:

...
PREFUNDED ACCOUNTS
==================

| Account address |  0x03ee9e18edc71a6df30ac3aca2e0b02a198fbce19b7480a63a0d71cbd76652e0
| Private key     |  0x0300001800000000300000180000000000030000000000003006001800006600
| Public key      |  0x01b7b37a580d91bc3ad4f9933ed61f3a395e0e51c9dd5553323b8ca3942bb44e

| Account address |  0x033c627a3e5213790e246a917770ce23d7e562baa5b4d2917c23b1be6d91961c
| Private key     |  0x0333803103001800039980190300d206608b0070db0012135bd1fb5f6282170b
| Public key      |  0x04486e2308ef3513531042acb8ead377b887af16bd4cdd8149812dfef1ba924d

| Account address |  0x01d98d835e43b032254ffbef0f150c5606fa9c5c9310b1fae370ab956a7919f5
| Private key     |  0x07ca856005bee0329def368d34a6711b2d95b09ef9740ebf2c7c7e3b16c1ca9c
| Public key      |  0x07006c42b1cfc8bd45710646a0bb3534b182e83c313c7bc88ecf33b53ba4bcbc
...

Before we can interact with the voting contract, we need to prepare the voter and admin accounts on Starknet. Each voter account must be registered and sufficiently funded for voting. For a more detailed understanding of how accounts operate with Account Abstraction, refer to the Account Abstraction chapter of the Starknet Book.

Smart wallets for voting

Aside from Scarb you will need to have Starkli installed. Starkli is a command line tool that allows you to interact with Starknet. You can find the installation instructions in the Basic Installation chapter of the Starknet Book.

Note: Please verify that the version of starkli match the specified version provided below.

$ starkli --version
0.1.20 (e4d2307)

To upgrade starkli to 1.0.20, use the starkliup -v 0.1.20 command.

For each smart wallet we'll use, we must create a Signer within the encrypted keystore and an Account Descriptor. This process is also detailed in the Testnet Deployment chapter of the Starknet Book.

We can create Signers and Account Descriptors for the accounts we want to use for voting. Let's create a smart wallet for voting in our smart contract.

Firstly, we create a signer from a private key:

starkli signer keystore from-key ~/.starkli-wallets/deployer/account0_keystore.json

Then, we create the Account Descriptor by fetching the katana account we want to use:

starkli account fetch <KATANA ACCOUNT ADDRESS> --rpc http://0.0.0.0:5050 --output ~/.starkli-wallets/deployer/account0_account.json

This command will create a new account0_account.json file containing the following details:

{
  "version": 1,
  "variant": {
        "type": "open_zeppelin",
        "version": 1,
        "public_key": "<SMART_WALLET_PUBLIC_KEY>"
  },
    "deployment": {
        "status": "deployed",
        "class_hash": "<SMART_WALLET_CLASS_HASH>",
        "address": "<SMART_WALLET_ADDRESS>"
  }
}

You can retrieve the smart wallet class hash (it will be the same for all your smart wallets) with the following command. Notice the use of the --rpc flag and the RPC endpoint provided by katana:

starkli class-hash-at <SMART_WALLET_ADDRESS> --rpc http://0.0.0.0:5050

For the public key, you can use the starkli signer keystore inspect command with the directory of the keystore json file:

starkli signer keystore inspect ~/.starkli-wallets/deployer/account0_keystore.json

This process is identical for account_1 and account_2 in case you want to have a second and a third voter.

Contract Deployment

Before deploying, we need to declare the contract. We can do this with the starkli declare command:

starkli declare target/dev/starknetbook_chapter_2_Vote.sierra.json --rpc http://0.0.0.0:5050 --account ~/.starkli-wallets/deployer/account0_account.json --keystore ~/.starkli-wallets/deployer/account0_keystore.json

If the compiler version you're using is older than the one used by Starkli and you encounter a compiler-version error while using the command above, you can specify a compiler version to use in the command by adding the --compiler-version x.y.z flag.

If you're still encountering issues with the compiler version, try upgrading Starkli using the command: starkliup to make sure you're using the latest version of starkli.

The class hash of the contract is: 0x06974677a079b7edfadcd70aa4d12aac0263a4cda379009fca125e0ab1a9ba52. You can find it on any block explorer.

The --rpc flag specifies the RPC endpoint to use (the one provided by katana). The --account flag specifies the account to use for signing the transaction. The account we use here is the one we created in the previous step. The --keystore flag specifies the keystore file to use for signing the transaction.

Since we are using a local node, the transaction will achieve finality immediately. If you are using the Goerli Testnet, you will need to wait for the transaction to be final, which usually takes a few seconds.

The following command deploys the voting contract and registers voter_0, voter_1, and voter_2 as eligible voters. These are the constructor arguments, so add a voter account that you can later vote with.

starkli deploy <class_hash_of_the_contract_to_be_deployed> <voter_0_address> <voter_1_address> <voter_2_address> --rpc http://0.0.0.0:5050 --account ~/.starkli-wallets/deployer/account0_account.json --keystore ~/.starkli-wallets/deployer/account0_keystore.json

An example command:

starkli deploy 0x06974677a079b7edfadcd70aa4d12aac0263a4cda379009fca125e0ab1a9ba52 0x03ee9e18edc71a6df30ac3aca2e0b02a198fbce19b7480a63a0d71cbd76652e0 0x033c627a3e5213790e246a917770ce23d7e562baa5b4d2917c23b1be6d91961c 0x01d98d835e43b032254ffbef0f150c5606fa9c5c9310b1fae370ab956a7919f5 --rpc http://0.0.0.0:5050 --account ~/.starkli-wallets/deployer/account0_account.json --keystore ~/.starkli-wallets/deployer/account0_keystore.json

In this case, the contract has been deployed at an specific address: 0x05ea3a690be71c7fcd83945517f82e8861a97d42fca8ec9a2c46831d11f33349. This address will be different for you. We will use this address to interact with the contract.

Voter Eligibility Verification

In our voting contract, we have two functions to validate voter eligibility, voter_can_vote and is_voter_registered. These are external read functions, which mean they don't alter the state of the contract but only read the current state.

The is_voter_registered function checks whether a particular address is registered as an eligible voter in the contract. The voter_can_vote function, on the other hand, checks whether the voter at a specific address is currently eligible to vote, i.e., they are registered and haven't voted already.

You can call these functions using the starkli call command. Note that the call command is used for read functions, while the invoke command is used for functions that can also write to storage. The call command does not require signing, while the invoke command does.

starkli call 0x05ea3a690be71c7fcd83945517f82e8861a97d42fca8ec9a2c46831d11f33349 voter_can_vote 0x03ee9e18edc71a6df30ac3aca2e0b02a198fbce19b7480a63a0d71cbd76652e0 --rpc http://0.0.0.0:5050

First we added the address of the contract, then the function we want to call, and finally the input for the function. In this case, we are checking whether the voter at the address 0x03ee9e18edc71a6df30ac3aca2e0b02a198fbce19b7480a63a0d71cbd76652e0 can vote.

Since we provided a registered voter address as an input, the result is 1 (boolean true), indicating the voter is eligible to vote.

Next, let's call the is_voter_registered function using an unregistered account address to observe the output:

starkli call 0x05ea3a690be71c7fcd83945517f82e8861a97d42fca8ec9a2c46831d11f33349 is_voter_registered 0x44444444444444444 --rpc http://0.0.0.0:5050

With an unregistered account address, the terminal output is 0 (i.e., false), confirming that the account is not eligible to vote.

Casting a Vote

Now that we have established how to verify voter eligibility, we can vote! To vote, we interact with the vote function, which is flagged as external, necessitating the use of the starknet invoke command.

The invoke command syntax resembles the call command, but for voting, we submit either 1 (for Yes) or 0 (for No) as our input. When we invoke the vote function, we are charged a fee, and the transaction must be signed by the voter; we are writing to the contract's storage.

//Voting Yes
starkli invoke 0x05ea3a690be71c7fcd83945517f82e8861a97d42fca8ec9a2c46831d11f33349 vote 1 --rpc http://0.0.0.0:5050 --account ~/.starkli-wallets/deployer/account0_account.json --keystore ~/.starkli-wallets/deployer/account0_keystore.json

//Voting No
starkli invoke 0x05ea3a690be71c7fcd83945517f82e8861a97d42fca8ec9a2c46831d11f33349 vote 0 --rpc http://0.0.0.0:5050 --account ~/.starkli-wallets/deployer/account0_account.json --keystore ~/.starkli-wallets/deployer/account0_keystore.json

You will be prompted to enter the password for the signer. Once you enter the password, the transaction will be signed and submitted to the Starknet network. You will receive the transaction hash as output. With the starkli transaction command, you can get more details about the transaction:

starkli transaction <TRANSACTION_HASH> --rpc http://0.0.0.0:5050

This returns:

{
  "transaction_hash": "0x5604a97922b6811060e70ed0b40959ea9e20c726220b526ec690de8923907fd",
  "max_fee": "0x430e81",
  "version": "0x1",
  "signature": [
    "0x75e5e4880d7a8301b35ff4a1ed1e3d72fffefa64bb6c306c314496e6e402d57",
    "0xbb6c459b395a535dcd00d8ab13d7ed71273da4a8e9c1f4afe9b9f4254a6f51"
  ],
  "nonce": "0x3",
  "type": "INVOKE",
  "sender_address": "0x3ee9e18edc71a6df30ac3aca2e0b02a198fbce19b7480a63a0d71cbd76652e0",
  "calldata": [
    "0x1",
    "0x5ea3a690be71c7fcd83945517f82e8861a97d42fca8ec9a2c46831d11f33349",
    "0x132bdf85fc8aa10ac3c22f02317f8f53d4b4f52235ed1eabb3a4cbbe08b5c41",
    "0x0",
    "0x1",
    "0x1",
    "0x1"
  ]
}

If you try to vote twice with the same signer you will get an error:

Error: code=ContractError, message="Contract error"

The error is not very informative, but you can get more details when looking at the output in the terminal where you started katana (our local Starknet node):

...
Transaction execution error: "Error in the called contract (0x03ee9e18edc71a6df30ac3aca2e0b02a198fbce19b7480a63a0d71cbd76652e0):
    Error at pc=0:81:
    Got an exception while executing a hint: Custom Hint Error: Execution failed. Failure reason: \"USER_ALREADY_VOTED\".
    ...

The key for the error is USER_ALREADY_VOTED.

assert!(can_vote, "USER_ALREADY_VOTED");

We can repeat the process to create Signers and Account Descriptors for the accounts we want to use for voting. Remember that each Signer must be created from a private key, and each Account Descriptor must be created from a public key, a smart wallet address, and the smart wallet class hash (which is the same for each voter).

starkli invoke 0x05ea3a690be71c7fcd83945517f82e8861a97d42fca8ec9a2c46831d11f33349 vote 0 --rpc http://0.0.0.0:5050 --account ~/.starkli-wallets/deployer/account1_account.json --keystore ~/.starkli-wallets/deployer/account1_keystore.json

starkli invoke 0x05ea3a690be71c7fcd83945517f82e8861a97d42fca8ec9a2c46831d11f33349 vote 1 --rpc http://0.0.0.0:5050 --account ~/.starkli-wallets/deployer/account2_account.json --keystore ~/.starkli-wallets/deployer/account2_keystore.json

Visualizing Vote Outcomes

To examine the voting results, we invoke the get_vote_status function, another view function, through the starknet call command.

starkli call 0x05ea3a690be71c7fcd83945517f82e8861a97d42fca8ec9a2c46831d11f33349 get_vote_status --rpc http://0.0.0.0:5050

The output reveals the tally of "Yes" and "No" votes along with their relative percentages.