Contract Functions

In this section, we are going to be looking at the different types of functions you could encounter in Starknet smart contracts.

Functions can access the contract's state easily via self: ContractState, which abstracts away the complexity of underlying system calls (storage_read_syscall and storage_write_syscall). The compiler provides two modifiers: ref and @ to decorate self, which intends to distinguish view and external functions.

1. Constructors

Constructors are a special type of function that only runs once when deploying a contract, and can be used to initialize the state of a contract.

    fn constructor(ref self: ContractState, owner: Person) {

Some important rules to note:

  1. A contract can't have more than one constructor.
  2. The constructor function must be named constructor, and must be annotated with the #[constructor] attribute.

The constructor function might take arguments, which are passed when deploying the contract. In our example, we pass some value corresponding to a Person type as argument in order to store the owner information (address and name) in the contract.

Note that the constructor function must take self as a first argument, corresponding to the state of the contract, generally passed by reference with the ref keyword to be able to modify the contract's state. We will explain self and its type shortly.

2. Public Functions

As stated previously, public functions are accessible from outside of the contract. They are usually defined inside an implementation block annotated with the #[abi(embed_v0)] attribute, but might also be defined independently under the #[external(v0)] attribute.

The #[abi(embed_v0)] attribute means that all functions embedded inside it are implementations of the Starknet interface of the contract, and therefore potential entry points.

Annotating an impl block with the #[abi(embed_v0] attribute only affects the visibility (i.e., public vs private/internal) of the functions it contains, but it doesn't inform us on the ability of these functions to modify the state of the contract.

    // Public functions inside an impl block
    impl NameRegistry of super::INameRegistry<ContractState> {
        fn store_name(ref self: ContractState, name: felt252, registration_type: RegistrationType) {
            let caller = get_caller_address();
            self._store_name(caller, name, registration_type);

        fn get_name(self: @ContractState, address: ContractAddress) -> felt252 {

        fn get_owner(self: @ContractState) -> Person {

Similarly to the constructor function, all public functions, either standalone functions annotated with the #[external(v0)] or functions within an impl block annotated with the #[abi(embed_v0)] attribute, must take self as a first argument. This is not the case for private functions.

External Functions

External functions are public functions where the self: ContractState argument is passed by reference with the ref keyword, which exposes both the read and write access to storage variables. This allows modifying the state of the contract via self directly.

        fn store_name(ref self: ContractState, name: felt252, registration_type: RegistrationType) {
            let caller = get_caller_address();
            self._store_name(caller, name, registration_type);

View Functions

View functions are public functions where the self: ContractState argument is passed as snapshot, which only allows the read access to storage variables, and restricts writes to storage made via self by causing compilation errors. The compiler will mark their state_mutability to view, preventing any state modification through self directly.

        fn get_name(self: @ContractState, address: ContractAddress) -> felt252 {

State Mutability of Public Functions

However, as you may have noticed, passing self as a snapshot only restricts the storage write access via self at compile time. It does not prevent state modification via direct system calls, nor calling another contract that would modify the state.

The read-only property of view functions is not enforced on Starknet, and sending a transaction targeting a view function could change the state.

In conclusion, even though external and view functions are distinguished by the Cairo compiler, all public functions can be called through an invoke transaction and have the potential to modify states on Starknet. Also, all public functions can be queried via starknet_call on Starknet, which will not create a transaction and hence will not change the state.

Warning: This is different from the EVM where a staticcall opcode is provided, which prevents storage modifications in the current context and subcontexts. Hence developers should not have the assumption that calling a view function on another contract cannot modify the state.

Standalone Public Functions

It is also possible to define public functions outside of an implementation of a trait, using the #[external(v0)] attribute. Doing this will automatically generate the corresponding ABI, allowing these standalone public functions to be callable by anyone from the outside. These functions can also be called from within the contract just like any function in Starknet contracts. The first parameter must be self.

    // Standalone public function
    fn get_contract_name(self: @ContractState) -> felt252 {
        'Name Registry'

3. Private Functions

Functions that are not defined with the #[external(v0)] attribute or inside a block annotated with the #[abi(embed_v0)] attribute are private functions (also called internal functions). They can only be called from within the contract.

They can be grouped in a dedicated impl block (e.g., in components, to easily import internal functions all at once in the embedding contracts) or just be added as free functions inside the contract module. Note that these 2 methods are equivalent. Just choose the one that makes your code more readable and easy to use.

    // Could be a group of functions about a same topic
    impl InternalFunctions of InternalFunctionsTrait {
        fn _store_name(
            ref self: ContractState,
            user: ContractAddress,
            name: felt252,
            registration_type: RegistrationType
        ) {
            let total_names =;
            self.names.write(user, name);
            self.registration_type.write(user, registration_type);
            self.total_names.write(total_names + 1);
            self.emit(StoredName { user: user, name: name });

    // Free function
    fn get_owner_storage_address(self: @ContractState) -> StorageBaseAddress {

Wait, what is this #[generate_trait] attribute? Where is the trait definition for this implementation? Well, the #[generate_trait] attribute is a special attribute that tells the compiler to generate a trait definition for the implementation block. This allows you to get rid of the boilerplate code of defining a trait with generic parameters and implementing it for the implementation block. With this attribute, we can simply define the implementation block directly, without any generic parameter, and use self: ContractState in our functions.

The #[generate_trait] attribute is mostly used to define private impl blocks. It might also be used in addition to #[abi(per_item)] to define the various entrypoints of a contract (see next section).

Note: using #[generate_trait] in addition to the #[abi(embed_v0)] attribute for a public impl block is not recommended, as it will result in a failure to generate the corresponding ABI. Public functions should only be defined in an impl block annotated with #[generate_trait] if this block is also annotated with the #[abi(per_item)] attribute.

4. [abi(per_item)] Attribute

You can also define the entrypoint type of functions individually inside an impl block using the#[abi(per_item)] attribute on top of your impl. It is often used with the #[generate_trait] attribute, as it allows you to define entrypoints without an explicit interface. In this case, the functions will not be grouped under an impl in the ABI. Note that when using #[abi(per_item)] attribute, public functions need to be annotated with the #[external(v0)] attribute - otherwise, they will not be exposed and will be considered as private functions.

Here is a short example:

mod AbiAttribute {
    struct Storage {}

    impl SomeImpl of SomeTrait {
        // this is a constructor function
        fn constructor(ref self: ContractState) {}

        // this is a public function
        fn external_function(ref self: ContractState, arg1: felt252) {}

        // this is a l1_handler function
        fn handle_message(ref self: ContractState, from_address: felt252, arg: felt252) {}

        // this is an internal function
        fn internal_function(self: @ContractState) {}

In the case of #[abi(per_item)] attribute usage without #[generate_trait], it will only be possible to include constructor, l1-handler and internal functions in the trait implementation. Indeed, #[abi(per_item)] only works with a trait that is not defined as a Starknet interface. Hence, it will be mandatory to create another trait defined as interface to implement public functions.